Pain in the spine is, and will continue to be, one of the most common afflictions of the human musculoskeletal system. What is the main cause and source of its appearance? Taking into consideration people under the age of fifty, whom more commonly suffer from severe back pain, the main source of their condition are intervertebral discs. These discs are structures located between two separate vertebrae. As the discs get older they develop microinjuries and microfractures, which influence their hydration. Damaged discs might cause centrally-focused pain in the middle of the spine, or just to one side. In cases regarding disc damage, they can cause a secondary irritation of other structures in the spine, such as the muscles, joints, ligaments, etc.
An increase in the damage to the disc increases the hernia or bulging, which may cause pressure on nerve structures, leading to limb pain. In older people where degenerative changes dominate, pain comes more often from intervertabrae joints. What causes damages in discs? We introduce the 9 most common reasons for back pain:
1) Genetics The first most significant reason for back pain is genetics. Genes which we inherit from our ancestors determine the endurance of our discs. Unfortunately we do not have any influence on this factor.
2) Congenital flaws of the spine and injuries Congenital flaws and suffered injuries are also significant risk factors, and one of the most common reasons for back pain. Many people discuss whether posture flaws have a direct influence on spinal pain. Research suggests that a slight variations from the accepted norm, and spinal symmetry do not more frequently cause disc damage. This is different to cases which show a significant deviation from the norm, including noticeable differences regarding limb length, pelvis symmetry, and scoliosis.

3) Lack of movement
One of the most common reasons for back pain is lack of movement. Humans were created to run, swim, walk etc. Physical activity is a factor which guarantees proper spinal functioning. We are not designed to spend 8 hours a day in the same position, something which occurs in many modern-day professions. Modern civilisation is now dominated by intellectual work in front of computers, and frequent usage of cars, so it is crucial to undertake additional physical activity. Research shows that people who play sport at a recreational level more rarely suffer from back pain. General physical movement is incredibly important for all human joints.
4) Movement monotony Conversely to the point above, our discs do not positively respond when the same action is being made repeatedly throughout the day. It is common for physical workers such as nurses, drivers, and people lifting heavy objects.
5) Improper bending technique A very dangerous situation for the spine is the bending movement (particularly made without bending the knees), combined with torso twisting. This is the most common reason of disc damage, more commonly known as a slipped disc.
6) Lack of sleep Our discs need rest. During walking and daily activities, a natural disc dehydration process occurs, which causes humans to shrink and become shorter. During sleep our discs rehydrate. For sufficient rehydration, 6-8 hours of sleep is required. People who do not fulfil this guideline more commonly suffer from slipped discs (spinal disc herniation).
7) Sick internal organ(s) Although spinal pain is most commonly connected with disc damage, it is not the only reason. Afflictions of the spine might also be caused by the sickness of internal organs. For example, in cases where the sick organ is located in the abdominal cavity the patient might feel pain in the lumbar region of the spine.
8) Tumors Tumors which are rarely the primary focal point can be found in the spinal area. It is more common to find tumor spread in the bone areas of the spine. You need to remember that when your pain intensifies at night, or the intensity does not decrease for a long time, it is crucial to consult a doctor.
9) Psychological problems Chronic spinal pain may be caused by psychological problems. Patients suffering from increased stress, anxiety and depression more commonly suffer from back pain. It is also related to increased muscle tension.
It is not possible to list all the common reasons for back pain and that is why we should not underestimate them. We must always consult a specialist as soon as possible.